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On The Law

This is the next of a series of columns on how the law can impact your life.  Each month we will focus on various aspects of the law relating to personal injuries, those that happen both on-the-job and otherwise, including mishaps which occur in driving vehicles, using products and receiving medical care.  The column will also respond to legal questions relating to personal injury that are sent to us.
HealyScanlon, formerly The Healy Law Firm, is comprised of seven trial attorneys.  We are located downtown at 111 West Washington Street, Suite 1425, Chicago, Illinois 60602 (800-922-4500 or 312-977-0100). www.HealyScanlon.com. The firm concentrates in the representation of injured victims of all types of accidents.

Never Ending Snow
With the COVID-19 pandemic still looming, we are now confronted with another challenge – winter storms sweeping across the county.  What seemed like a mild start to the winter has given way to the more typical Chicago winter: cold, snow and sleet.  The number of consecutive large snowfall storms seems unending.  To some, especially skiers, snowmobilers and those who enjoy outdoor activities, it can be beautiful.  To others who have to shovel their walkways and driveways, it can be a real burden.  But to all, with an accumulation of snow, there can be a risk of injury as a pedestrian and a risk of liability as an owner or occupier of land.  At this time of the year, people should be aware of their rights and responsibilities as it relates to snow falls.  These include the right to make a claim if injured as a result of a fall on ice or snow, and include the responsibility of the owners of land to keep the premises reasonably safe.  
Municipal Ordinances
Requiring The Removal Of Snow
Under a City of Chicago Ordinance, there is a requirement for any owner, renter, or any other person responsible for any building in the City to remove the snow and ice from the sidewalk in front of the building.
While these municipal ordinances require property owners to remove snow, they are, generally speaking, for the benefit of the municipality.  They usually do not establish a separate duty on the part of the land owner for injuries from falls.  
“Natural Accumulation” and the Law Concerning Ice and Snow
While, as a general rule, property owners have a responsibility to maintain their property in a reasonably safe condition, property owners are not responsible for the “natural accumulation” of snow or ice on their property.  This also applies if clearing off the snow exposes a natural accumulation of ice beneath the snow.  The concept of “natural accumulation” would include ruts or uneven surfaces made by pedestrians and vehicles which result from a thawing and refreezing on a properly maintained surface.  
As to business property owners, they have no responsibility to remove water or snow tracked in by customers or even to provide a mat or rug to wipe their feet.  And, unless it is an unnatural accumulation, there is no duty to remove water accumulated around a rug or mat.    
Injuries From Falls On Ice And Snow
Claims for injuries from falls on snowy and icy walkways or parking lots are often based on an “unnatural accumulation” or negligent maintenance or design of the walkway or parking lot.  In the past, we had a recovery because a slopping sidewalk created an unnatural accumulation of ice and snow resulting in a fall.  Another recovery involved an injury because an improper design of a entry way resulted in an unnatural accumulation.  Liability has resulted from leaking gutters or downspouts forming ice on a stairway or a sump pump discharge forming ice on a sidewalk.  Liability may also result from a negligent removal of ice and snow if it creates an unnatural accumulation.  However, to encourage owners to remove ice and snow from sidewalks, the Illinois General Assembly passed the Snow and Ice Removal Act.  The Act provides that residential property owners removing ice or snow abutting their property will not be liable for injuries unless their acts are willful and wanton.  As can be seen, the facts of each individual case will determine the ultimate outcome.  
Generally speaking, to begin to establish a claim, first, the claimant must be able to show there was an unnatural accumulation of snow which presented an unreasonable risk of harm to persons on the property.  Secondly, the claimant must show that the owner knew or should have known about the condition and the risk.  Thirdly, the claimant must show that the owner would not reasonably expect persons to discover or realize the danger.  
This general discussion of rights and responsibilities relating to snow and ice should not be considered a substitute for individual legal advice from an attorney based on the facts of a particular case.  If you have any questions, call us or visit our website.  
Road Conditions
Another issue with the large snowfall is the fluctuation in temperatures.  The City of Chicago’s Office of Emergency Management recently came out with a statement regarding the dangers associated with melting ice and snow, which includes the potential for street flooding.  When the temperatures dip, this creates for slick and dangerous road conditions.  It is important to be mindful of the road conditions and to drive carefully when there is ice on the road.  
The City of Chicago’s Streets and Sanitation Department has asked resident to be respectful of the overnight parking ban on many of the City’s main streets.  This overnight parking ban runs until April 1st, and takes place from 3 a.m. to 7 a.m.  The goal is to make it easier for the department to completely clear many of the City’s major streets from snowfall.  Violators will be towed and be ticketed.  
Conclusion
The law has established protections for owners and occupiers of land for claims based on nature accumulations of snow and ice.  However, as discussed, there are exceptions to these rules.  The hope is that everyone can enjoy the snow and outdoors without injury.  And keep in mind:  Spring is only a month away.
By: Neil Schelhammer

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